Metronidazole (Uses, Dosage, Side Effects)

Can a man be a carrier of something that can contribute to a bacterial infection? Risk factors that seem to increase the likelihood of bacterial vaginosis include a history of multiple sex partners, a sexual relationship with a new partner, cigarette smoking, vaginal douching and the use of the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Maybe, but don’t reach for the Monistat just yet. Discharge also can result from vaginal atrophy (thinning and inflammation of the vaginal wall) and medications such as tamoxifen. In SA Morse et al.

  • This medicine is available as a cream that you insert into your vagina.
  • The symptoms of this condition include a watery, irritating, fishy-smelling discharge.

What is Flagyl? Generic versions of these antibiotics also are available and effective. Predisposing factors Several factors are known to increase the risk of BV, including younger age,5 black ethnicity,6 douching,7 smoking,8 and the IUD as contraception. Person interested in, yeasts normally only infect the people they inhabit. Metronidazole is an antibiotic that fights bacteria. Care must be taken to avoid access to these capsules by children. Vulvovaginal candidiasis can be difficult to diagnose because characteristic signs and symptoms (thick, white discharge, dysuria, vulvovaginal pruritus and swelling) are not specific for the infection. If you stop using this medicine too soon, your infection may return.

It’s important to take your medication for as long as your doctor prescribes it. “Then women would not be buying boric acid and homeopathic suppositories and going back to their gynecologists all the time,” says Warren Lewis. Common infectious forms of vaginitis include bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. It’s sold under the brand name Solosec. A tea tree tampon needs to remain in situ overnight. Oral thrush in adults, if applying using a finger, keep your fingernails short. You suspect that you have BV.

Not finishing your prescribed medicine can lead to a recurrence. They can develop at any age, but these infections are more common during reproductive years. Female partners should seek testing and may need treatment.

Tell your doctor if you have ever had:


It comes in pill form and cures infections in a few days about 90 percent of the time. Oral candidiasis, [7] The white material is made up of debris, fibrin, and desquamated epithelium that has been invaded by yeast cells and hyphae that invade to the depth of the stratum spinosum. Candida auris: a pathogen difficult to identify, treat, and eradicate and its characteristics in japanese strains. If you have bacterial vaginosis, you doctor will generally prescribe one of the following treatments: Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets.

Thanks for visiting! A yeast infection is a form of vaginitis, which means inflammation in the vagina. About 50 percent to 75 percent of women with BV have no symptoms. Maybe you get a day or two of funky smell after your period, but it goes away—meaning your Lactobacillus were able to repopulate on their own, Dr. Benign disorders of the vulva and vagina. BV can be treated with over the counter topical (vaginal) or oral antibiotics such as metronidazole or clindamycin.

How To Use Metronidazole Vaginal Gel

These products are not to be taken by mouth. There are several kinds of lactobacillus, at least one of which is responsible for keeping the vagina's pH at normal levels. Oil of Oregano – Generally, oregano oil is made from common oregano, or origanum marjoram, and it does not have curative properties. Normally, the pH factor in your vagina should be between 3. A desensitization protocol is available for the management of documented trichomoniasis and frank allergy to metronidazole.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Thrush in men and women, don’t have vaginal or oral sex, or put anything into your vagina, until you’ve finished treatment and your infection goes away. The greatest risk factors for BV are having a new sex partner or having multiple sex partners. While a yeast infection can be treated with over the counter products or may go away on its own, bacterial vaginosis may need to be treated with prescription medication. Call your doctor immediately if you have any of these symptoms.

The healthy vaginal ecosystem requires the right balance of bacteria flora. Vaginal yeast infections, this produces a noticeable smell that you can detect after a strenuous exercise session. You can add it to a cup of tea or a glass of water sip it throughout the day or once in the morning. But dairy lactobacillus does not work for bacterial vaginosis.

  • Bacterial vaginosis may be passed from woman to woman during sexual contact.
  • Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of metronidazole in the elderly.
  • Bacterial vaginosis — usually called BV — is a bacterial infection.
  • Unless you’re pregnant, there are few risks to giving the infection a little time to see if it clears on its own.

Metronidazole Side Effects

In patients with severe discomfort secondary to vulvitis, the combination of a low-potency steroid cream and a topical antifungal cream may be beneficial. One 150-mg tablet orally once per week Culture and sensitivity results should be used to guide therapy, because non–C. Two of the most common causes of vaginitis are yeast infection and bacterial vaginosis. In fact, three out of every four women will get a yeast infection during their lifetime and bacterial vaginosis is the most common infection for women ages 15 to 44.

The most common and minor side effects include: Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor. People with sinus infections stay on antibiotics too long, discard any oral suspension left over after 10 days. Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. While symptoms are not present in about half of women with bacterial vaginosis, those who do experience symptoms will have vaginal discharge, usually with an unpleasant odor. What is a vaginal yeast infection?, vulvovaginal candidiasis section of Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2020. You should stop metronidazole immediately for any neurological symptoms such as seizures, headaches, visual changes, weakness, numbness, or tingling. This medicine may increase your risk of having serious liver problems, which may be life-threatening.

Pre-Travel Risk Assessment and Health Advice for Missionaries and Other Long-Term Expatriate Volunteers

How do I know if I need to see my health care professional? It happens when the different kinds of healthy bacteria in your vagina get out of balance and grow too much. A moderate infection with increasingly uncomfortable symptoms may require treatment and last for a longer period of time. What is a yeast infection?, the most common kinds of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis (BV) and yeast, a fungus. Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur.

Drug Interactions

Seizures and other nervous system abnormalities have been reported in patients treated with metronidazole. Bacterial vaginosis usually causes the vaginal pH to rise above 4. Bacterial vaginosis is characterised by a thin homogeneous white discharge, a vaginal pH of greater than 4. But while it’s true that they are similar below-the-belt issues, they’re ultimately different conditions with slightly different symptoms. Do not double doses.

  • For comparison of timely repeated continuous measures of stool colonization between the two groups, repeated measures analysis of variance was applied.
  • Clindamycin is known to weaken latex condoms for up to three days after you use the cream.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using metronidazole vaginal?

Typically, beneficial vaginal bacteria like Lactobacillus help keep other organisms (like the yeast) under control. Finally, if yeast is the cause, the pH of your vagina won't change and a microscopic analysis of the smear will show typical yeast forms (hyphae). If tolerance is a problem, the CDC10 recommends repeating the 2-g dose of metronidazole orally and if the patient still is infected, giving oral metronidazole in a dosage of 2 g per day for three to five days. Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of metronidazole extended-release tablets to treat bacterial vaginosis in teenage females, but should not be used before the start of menstruation. The normal vaginal pH is 3. A RCT of oral Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) showed no reduction in UTIs over 12 months.

For amebiasis infections: Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur: After gynecological surgery. Here's a list of treatments out there, from the cheapest to the most expensive, according to the CDC 2020 Guidelines for Treatment of Vaginitis: Treatment also may reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This may help explain why African-American women have higher rates of problem pregnancies. Notification of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) may be warranted.

Things To Consider

During pregnancy, women are usually prescribed oral medicine. Yeast infections, chronic pain linked, study suggests, personal lubricants could also throw things off vaginally, so it’s a good idea to opt for hypoallergenic, unscented lubes. How long does a yeast infection take to go away? Yeast infections affect different parts of the body in different ways:. Make sure you know which type of infection you have BEFORE treating it. Some studies suggest that eating foods that contain lactobacillus may be beneficial, but more research is needed.

How to Get Rid of a Yeast Infection

They can include: A less common form of yeast called Candida glabrata, found in up to 15 percent of women with recurring infections. Infections of the lower and upper genital tracts: Insert a capsule of oil of oregano into the vagina at night before bedtime. Having persistent symptoms. The discharge may be white, dull gray, greenish, and/or foamy. Avoid douching. 32 Another small study compared tinidazole 2 g single oral dose followed by acidic vaginal gel for 3 weeks with 2% clindamycin vaginal cream 5 g per night for 7 nights.


Sorry, we could not find any Health Center for your search. How do I treat BV? Use an effective form of birth control to keep from getting pregnant. 8 percent vaginal cream (Terazol 3) 5 g intravaginally per day for 3 days Terconazole 80-mg vaginal suppository (Terazol 3) One suppository intravaginally per day for 3 days When therapy for vulvovaginal candidiasis is considered, it is helpful to classify the infection as uncomplicated or complicated (Table 4).

  • If you stop taking it early, you may increase the chance BV will come back.
  • Antibiotics work by killing bacteria that cause infection, but they can also kill beneficial bacteria in other parts of the body, including the vagina.
  • Do not take metronidazole vaginal by mouth.
  • This is the first study of replacement with one of the main vaginal hydrogen peroxide producing LB.
  • Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
  • The treatment arm (117 subjects) will receive PPT with intravaginal metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg (co-formulated suppositories) for five consecutive nights each month.

Home Treatment

(”), she finds it harder to speak up. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines. The vaginal suppositories are inserted, one per dose, in an applicator. What is a vaginal yeast infection? If the infection does not respond to nonprescription medications, an oral antifungal can be prescribed by the doctor. Talk to your health care professional about this risk and be sure to alert him or her if you experience severe diarrhea, stomach cramping or blood in your stool while taking clindamycin or within a few weeks of stopping it. It makes one believe the problem is coming from the man's ejaculate. Are going to have a hysterectomy or surgical abortion. Healthdirect 24hr 7 days a week hotline, immense stress – stress can change the balance of your body’s chemistry, which can lead to surprising and uncomfortable physiological changes. Metronidazole belongs to the class of medicines known as antibiotics.  Metronidazole is used to treat anaerobic bacterial infections or protozoal infections.

Treating vaginal infections The treatment of your vaginal infection will differ depending on what type of infection you have. If the infections keep recurring, though, you and your doctor need to look for an underlying cause. It’s like a destructive tsunami for your vagina, throwing your vaginal pH out of whack and potentially even pushing harmful bacteria into your uterus where they can cause more serious problems. Yeast infection (vaginal), taking corticosteroids. 24,25 This group have recently published a RCT of oral capsules of L rhamnosus GR-1 and L fermentum RC-14 for 60 days. Will she need to be treated?

Who Should Not Take Flagyl

If you are using this medicine for trichomoniasis (an infection of the sex organs in men or women), your doctor may want to treat your sexual partner at the same time you are being treated, even if he or she has no symptoms. What are my chances of having BV come back? 5 milligrams (mg) per kilogram (kg) of body weight every 6 hours for 7 to 10 days. Skipping doses can increase your risk of infection that is resistant to medication.


This list is not complete. This significant improvement in vaginal flora was also accompanied by a significant increase in LB at day 60. Flagyl, Flagyl ER, and Flagyl Injection (metronidazole) are antimicrobial drugs used to treat bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas, amebiasis, and anaerobic bacterial infections. This treatment is reported to be effective in 58 percent of patients. Stopping your medication too early may cause a risk of recurrence of infection and antibiotic resistant bacteria. Clindamycin – Also known as Clindesse or Cleocin, this medication comes as a cream.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. If you think you have become pregnant while using the medicine, tell your doctor right away. You're in good company, since 75 percent of all women have a diagnosis of vaginal yeast infections (vaginal candidiasis) at some point in their lives. I'm not sure why symptoms of bacterial vaginitis (or vaginosis) worsen after unprotected sex. These might include:

What other information should I know?

If bacterial vaginosis was a simple infection, treatment with metronidazole or clindamycin should be very effective. Infections with these species are less common than C. Metronidazole also comes as a topical gel. Again, I want to point out that several studies have shown that up to 50 percent of women who thought they had yeast vaginitis actually had something else. Not only is your self-confidence approaching lows usually reserved for the dreaded cystic pimple, but you’re also uncomfortable!

  • Many women assume vaginal symptoms are the result of a sexually transmitted disease (STD), which is often not the case.
  • 7 View/Print Table TABLE 4 Classification of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Uncomplicated Complicated Sporadic or infrequent infection Recurrent infection Mild-to-moderate infection Severe infection Candida albicans as likely cause Infection with Candida species other than C.
  • If you have any of these side effects, stop taking metronidazole right away and call your doctor.
  • Consider using birth control pills that don’t contain estrogen, such as progesterone-only pills or an IUD.
  • If you have trouble breathing, call 911.
  • Before you start the treatment, read the manufacturer's printed information leaflet from inside the pack.
  • Unlike women with asymptomatic G.

Women’s Health

4 So following successful treatment, half of women will stay cured for years. Getting a prescription of oral or topical anti fungal cream is a simple and quick solution. In these cases the over-the-counter medications obviously won't work.

This will lessen your chance of upset stomach or nausea.

Microbiologic Analysis

WebMD terms and conditions. Treatment is described per condition below: It works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. 10 However, topical agents have been shown to decrease symptoms and may be useful in patients with the rare problem of metronidazole resistance. People can help prevent vaginal candidiasis by taking antibiotics only when they are necessary.

Can you pass either condition to a sexual partner? 8% were clear with placebo. BV is an infection caused by changes in the vagina’s healthy bacteria—most often when a strain of bacteria called Gardnerella vaginalis outnumbers another strain Lactobacillus, causing the vagina’s normal pH levels to shift. If you are treating a vaginal infection, your sexual partner may also need to take metronidazole (even if no symptoms are present) or you could become reinfected. A higher pH level means that the vagina is less acidic — and less able to keep bacteria under control. Your doctor will do a pH test and assess your symptoms and may take a simple swab for examination under a microscope before providing a diagnosis. When bacterial vaginosis occurs (and this accounts for up to 50 percent of the cases of acute vaginitis) the vaginal flora changes so that lactobacilli dominance gives way to bacteria that don’t like oxygen. What happens if I overdose?

Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any you start or stop using, especially: 23 It was thought there was a problem with LB adherence. Avoid sexual contact with someone who has a sexually transmitted disease; use condoms if you're uncertain. These organisms produce hydrogen peroxide and keep the vaginal pH ≤4. Bacterial vaginosis is a form of abnormal vaginal environment that can lead to other complications including miscarriage, preterm labor, serious infection after surgery and pelvic inflammatory disease. Diagnosis should rely on microscopic examination of a sample from the lateral vaginal wall (10 to 20 percent potassium hydroxide preparation).

17 Although evidence supports treatment of high-risk pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis5 (defined as women who previously delivered a premature infant),7 the benefits of treating asymptomatic, low-risk pregnant women is less clear.


The vaginal pH was <4. Experts do not yet understand what causes this imbalance. In animal studies (mice and rats), this medicine caused certain types of cancers or tumors. The 200 mg suppositories (Monistat 3) are inserted once nightly for 3 nights. Many women commonly mistake other vaginal infections for Yeast Infections, believing that it is the most common type.

In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Unfortunately, elevated vaginal pH can be caused by a number of things including your period, because blood has a pH of 7. Gently wash your vaginal area before applying the medicine. Some yeast infections can be treated with over-the-counter (OTC) medications, but all cases of BV require prescription medication.

You can also get a prescription from an online doctor.

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Another option is a single or double dose of an oral medication called Diflucan (chemical name: )Metronidazole comes as a gel to be used in the vagina. Keep out of the reach of children. Questions to Ask Review the following Questions to Ask about bacterial vaginosis (BV) so you're prepared to discuss this important health issue with your health care professional. BV is caused when there is too much bad (pathogenic) bacteria. What are you going to do?

Douching upsets the normal pH balance of the vagina. Patients randomly assigned to the combined intestinal bacterial decontamination medication were treated with oral metronidazole at 400 mg three times daily and ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily p. It’s not very common, but a man can get a yeast infection. BV is actually a syndrome resulting from an imbalance in the different types of bacteria in the vagina (also called vaginal "flora").

Another common type of vaginitis results from vaginal yeast infections. But having sex with a new partner, or multiple partners, may increase your risk for BV. OTC and prescription medication can usually clear up a yeast infection within a week. Normal vaginal pH is somewhere between 3. If you are having some of these uncomfortable symptoms, you could have bacterial vaginosis: Metronidazole vaginal (for use in the vagina) is used to treat vaginal infections caused by bacteria. The sample of your vaginal discharge will also rule out any other potential infections like a yeast infection or an STD. Check with your doctor right away if you have dizziness, problems with muscle control or coordination, shakiness or an unsteady walk, slurred speech, or trouble speaking.

Diet, Food & Fitness

Metronidazole vaginal is often given as a single dose. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved Flagyl (generic name: )What can I do if I experience this? Insert the medicine directly into your vagina using the applicator provided. What to think about If your doctor finds other problems during the exam, such as a possible sexually transmitted infection (STI), appropriate treatment will be recommended. For example, in complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis, topical therapy has been shown to be more effective than single-dose oral therapy,28 but treatment should be extended to 10 to 14 days. If you’re having pain, discomfort, or discharge in the vaginal area, see your doctor and get tested to figure out the exact cause. Not using condoms.

Avoiding irritants in the vaginal area, such as perfumes, soaps, and panty liners, among others. The extended–release tablet must be taken without food, 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. Atrophic vaginitis results from estrogen deficiency. Monistat-1 vaginal ovule: Is BV considered a sexually transmitted infection? 4 The mean follow up was 6. The condition used to be referred to as Gardnerella vaginitis; because Gardnerella is a type of bacteria that sometimes causes the infection. For bacterial vaginosis:

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But in some women it doesn't go away on its own. Your doctor will do a vaginal examination and take a swab sample of your vaginal discharge to test for pH factor levels. Clindamycin cream may weaken latex condoms during treatment and for at least three days after you stop using the cream. Some home treatments may be more effective for you than others. Newer types of treatment include a single oral dose of fluconazole or itraconazole. Symptoms include an off-white or grey discharge and a fishy or musty smell. Preventing an STI is easier than treating an infection after it occurs.